User Guide
Concurrency Strategies
Round Robin

The GROUP_ROUND_ROBIN Concurrency Limit Strategy in Hatchet

Hatchet's GROUP_ROUND_ROBIN concurrency limit strategy is an advanced way to manage resource contention in your workflows while ensuring fair distribution of resources across different groups of tennants, users, or other concurrency key. This strategy allows you to process workflow instances in a round-robin fashion within each group, as defined by a key function.

How it works

When a new workflow instance is triggered, the GROUP_ROUND_ROBIN strategy will:

  1. Determine the group that the instance belongs to based on the key function defined in the workflow's concurrency configuration.
  2. Check if there are any available slots for the instance's group based on the maxRuns limit of available workers.
  3. If a slot is available, the new workflow instance starts executing immediately.
  4. If no slots are available, the new workflow instance is added to a queue for its group.
  5. When a running workflow instance completes and a slot becomes available for a group, the next queued instance for that group (in round-robin order) is dequeued and starts executing.

This strategy ensures that workflow instances are processed fairly across different groups, preventing any one group from monopolizing the available resources. It also helps to reduce latency for instances within each group, as they are processed in a round-robin fashion rather than strictly in the order they were triggered.


The GROUP_ROUND_ROBIN strategy is particularly useful in scenarios where:

  • You have multiple clients or users triggering workflow instances, and you want to ensure fair resource allocation among them.
  • You want to process instances within each group in a round-robin fashion to minimize latency and ensure that no single instance within a group is starved for resources.
  • You have long-running workflow instances and want to avoid one group's instances monopolizing the available slots.

Keep in mind that the GROUP_ROUND_ROBIN strategy may not be suitable for all use cases, especially those that require strict ordering or prioritization of the most recent events. Consider using a different concurrency limit strategy, such as QUEUE_NEWEST, if these requirements apply to your workflow.


To use the GROUP_ROUND_ROBIN concurrency limit strategy, define a concurrency configuration in your workflow definition:

export const myWorkflow: Workflow = {
  id: "my-workflow",
  description: "My workflow with GROUP_ROUND_ROBIN concurrency limit",
  on: {
    event: "my.event",
  steps: [
    // ...
  concurrency: {
    name: "my-workflow-concurrency",
    maxRuns: 10,
    limitStrategy: ConcurrencyLimitStrategy.GROUP_ROUND_ROBIN,
    key: (ctx) => ctx.workflowInput().userId,

In this example:

  • maxRuns sets the maximum number of concurrent instances allowed for each group.
  • limitStrategy is set to GROUP_ROUND_ROBIN, indicating that instances should be processed in a round-robin fashion within each group.
  • key is a function that takes the workflow context and returns a string key. This key is used to group workflow instances for the purpose of concurrency limiting and round-robin processing. In this example, instances are grouped by userId, so the concurrency limit and round-robin processing are applied separately for each unique user.

With this configuration, Hatchet will automatically manage your workflow's concurrency, processing instances within each group in a round-robin fashion and ensuring fair distribution of resources across groups.